STEMS IN ι AND υ

Most stems in ι and some stems in υ show the pure stem vowel only in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular. In the other cases they show an ε in place of ι and υ, and -ως instead of -ος in the genitive singular. Contraction takes place when this ε stands before ε, ι, or α of the case ending.

SINGULAR
πόλις city πῆχυς forearmτὸ ἄστυ town σῦς sow ἰχθύ_ς fish
πολι-πηχυ-ἀστυ-συ-ἰχθυ-
Nom.πόλι-ςπῆχυ-ςἄστυσῦ-ςἰχθύ_-ς
Gen.πόλε-ωςπήχε-ωςἄστε-ωςσυ-όςἰχθύ-ος
Dat.πόλε-ι) πόλειπήχε-ι) πήχειἄστε-ι) ἄστεισυ-ΐἰχθύ-ϊ
Acc.πόλι-νπῆχυ-νἄστυσῦ-νἰχθύ_-ν
Voc.πόλιπῆχυἄστυσῦἰχθύ_

DUAL
N.A.V.πόλε-ε) πόλειπήχε-ε) πήχειἄστε-ε) ἄστεισύ-εἰχθύ-ε
G. D.πολέ-οινπηχέ-οινἀστέ-οινσυ-οῖνἰχθύ-οιν

PLURAL
N. V.πόλε-ες) πόλειςπήχε-ες) πήχειςἄστε-α) ἄστησύ-εςἰχθύ-ες
Gen.πόλε-ωνπήχε-ωνἄστε-ωνσυ-ῶνἰχθύ-ων
Dat.πόλε-σινπήχε-σινἄστε-σινσυ-σίνἰχθύ-σι (ν
Acc.πόλειςπήχειςἄστε-α) ἄστησῦςἰχθῦς

1. ι stems. a. Doric, Aeolic, and New Ionic retain the ι stem without variation in all cases: πόλις, πόλιος, πόλι_ (from πολι-ι) and rarely πόλει in Hdt., πόλιν, πόλι, πόλιες, πολίων, πόλισι, πόλι_ς from πόλινς (Cretan), and πόλιας.

b. Hom. has πόλις, πόλιος, πόλι_, πόλει or -ιϊ (for which some read πόλι_, as κόνι_; πόσεϊ is correct) and πτόλεϊ, πόλιν, πόλι; pl. πόλιες, πολίων, πόλεσι (some read instead πόλισι) or πολίεσσι (250 D. 2) ἐπάλξεσιν, πόλι_ς or πόλιας (πόλεις appears in some texts).

c. Hom. has also forms with η: πόληος, πόληι, πόληες, πόληας.

2. υ stems. a. Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic have the open forms πήχεες, ἄστεϊ, ἄστεα; in the gen. sing. -ος, never -ως (πήχεος, ἄστεος). In the dat. sing. of words of more than one syllable Hom. has -υϊ or -υι, as νέκυι (νέκυς corpse), but Hdt. does not show -υι.

b. The gen. pl. has the regular accent (πηχέων, ἀστέων). On the dat. πελέκεσσι, νέκυσσι, πίτυσσι (some would read νέκυ_σι, πίτυ_σι), νεκύεσσι, see 250 D. 2. Hom. has accus. ἰχθῦς and ἰχθύας, Hdt. has ἰχθύας very rarely.

Stems in ι and υ are of two kinds:—

1. a. Stems in ι, with genitive in -εως, as (masc.) μάντις seer, ἔχις viper; (fem.) πόλις city, ποίησις poetry, δύναμις power, στάσις faction, ὕβρις outrage. Neuter nominatives in -ι are not used in classical prose.

b. Stems in ι, with genitive in -ιος, as κί_ς weevil, gen. κι_-ός, dat. κι_-ί; and so in proper names in -ις, as Λύγδαμις Lygdamis, gen. Λυγδάμιος.

2. a. Stems in υ, with genitive in -υος; as (masc.) μῦς mouse, βότρυς cluster of grapes, ἰχθύ_ς fish; (fem.) δρῦς oak, ὀφρύ_ς eyebrow, ἰσχύ_ς force.

b. Stems in υ, with genitive in -εως: (masc.) πῆχυς forearm, πέλεκυς axe; (neut.) ἄστυ town.

N. 1.—In the nom., acc., and voc. sing. barytone stems in υ have short υ; oxytone substantives (usually) and monosyllables have υ_; and monosyllables circumflex the υ_ (σῦς, σῦν, σῦ).

N. 2.— ἔγχελυς eel follows ἰχθύ_ς in the singular (ἐγχέλυ-ος, etc.), but πῆχυς in the plural (ἐγχέλεις, etc.). But this does not hold for Aristotle.

Stems in ι and υ vary with stronger stems, of which ε in the cases other than nom., acc., and voc. sing. is a survival. Thus:

a. ι, υ, as in πόλι-ς, πῆχυ-ς.

b. ει, ευ, which before vowels lost their ι and υ (43), as in πολε[ιγλιδε]-ι, πολε[ιγλιδε]-ες, πηχε[υγλιδε]-ες; which contract to πόλει, πόλεις, πήχεις.

c. There is also a stem in η, as in Hom. πόλη-ος (268 D. 1, c), whence πόλε-ως.

N. 1.—πόλε-ος in Attic poetry for the sake of the metre is due to the analogy of υ stems with gen. in -ε-ος (ἡδέ-ος, 297). Hom. πήχε-ος is the regular form (from πηχε[υγλιδε]-ος). Attic πήχε-ως follows πόλεως. πόλε-σι and πήχε-σι for πόλι-σι and πήχυ-σι are due to the analogy of forms from stems in ει, ευ (πόλε-ων, πήχε-ων, etc.).

N. 2.—The dual πόλεε occurs in some Mss.

Accent.—Final -ως of the genitive singular does not prevent the acute from standing on the antepenult (163 a). Thus πόλε-ως, πήχε-ως, ἄστε-ως. πόλε-ως retains the accent of the earlier πόλη-ος, which, by transference of quantity (34), became πόλε-ως. The accent of the gen. pl. follows that of the gen. sing.

Accusative plural.—πόλεις, πήχεις are borrowed from the nominative. ἰχθῦς is from ἰχθυν-ς. ἰχθύας occurs in late Greek. Cp. 251 a.

Contraction.—ἰχθῦ (once) for ἰχθύε and ἰχθῦς for ἰχθύες occur in comedy. ἰχθῦ is not a legitimate contraction, as υ cannot contract with ε (51 c). ἰχθῦς (for ἰχθύες) is the accus. form used as the nom. (251 b).

οἶς sheep is declined as follows: οἶς, οἰ-ός, οἰ-ί, οἶ-ν, οἶ; dual, οἶ-ε, οἰ-οῖν; pl. οἶ-ες, οἰ-ῶν, οἰ-σί, οἶ-ς. Here the stem is οι᾽, representing ὀϝι, which is properly an ι stem: ὀϝι-ς, Lat. ovi-s.

Hom. has ὄϊς, ὀΐος and οἰός, ὄϊν, ὄϊες, ὀΐων and οἰῶν, ὀΐεσσι (οἴεσσι ο 386) and ὄεσσι, ὄϊςι_).

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